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The celebration of Halloween has long been associated with traditions and rituals. This fun-filled, candy-centric night actually goes by many names around the world. Some people know it as Hallowe’en, which is a contraction of the words Hallows and evening. Some prefer to call it All Saints’ Eve or All Hallows’ Eve. Some religions don’t recognize it at all, and some people prefer to honor its origins, paying tribute to all the dearly departed.

The origin of what we now know to be Halloween started 2,000 years ago. Samhain was known as the festival of the dead. To the ancient Gaelic people, the night of October 31st marked the end of summer/harvest season and the beginning of winter/the dark half of the year. The darkness and the cold were associated with death, and to ancient Celts, the border between the old and new years that occurred on this night signified a blurring of the two plains of existence (life and death). Celtic people caused massive destruction because they believed that priests could predict the future if large bonfires were offered up to attract spirits. These were usually made from whole crops and livestock. People wore costumes and masks to make the ghosts believe they were spirits and people attempted to tell each others’ fortunes until sunrise. …


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When people think of philosophers, the ancient wise scholars of Plato and Aristotle may come to mind. It’s very unusual for someone to think about a modern-day person studying this field, much less being a major influencer. However, there are still people out there who enjoy studying the fundamental nature of reality, knowledge, and existence at an academic level. Just like there are more inventions to be invented, there are always going to be fresh viewpoints and ideas waiting to be shared.

Thomas Nagel was born in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, but he currently teaches philosophy and law at New York University. He wrote an essay entitled What is it like to be a bat? which opened new ways for philosophers to view the human mind. …


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Philosophy is defined as the study of general and fundamental questions surrounding human existence. This seemingly basic idea encapsulates complex ideologies such as knowledge, reason, values, and language. It is a very abstract discipline that examines our relationship with the world, the universe, and society, and it is often studied in question format. It is a deeper search for meaning, beyond just ourselves. Throughout history, numerous philosophers have made us think in ways previously unexplored, and they are recognized for their teachings.

While we now know there have been over 3,000 ancient philosophers on record, the first ones were documented around 600 B.C. are were called the Seven Sages of Greece. Each one is remembered for their unique contribution to the world of philosophy. Cleobulus of Lindos was known for his strength, charm and wisdom. Solon of Athens fought against political, economic, and moral decline in Athens. Chilon of Sparta helped form what became the military. Bias of Priene was a politician, poet, and philosopher who had a strong sense of justice. Thales of Miletus was the first truly well-known philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician. Pittacus of Mytilene believed in the power of the masses, rather than nobility, and he was a beloved general. …

About

Jeanet Maduro de Polanco

Jeanet Maduro de Polanco is an Italian historian and author with a deep passion for history and historical non-fiction. Read more at JeanetMadurodePolanco.net

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